Friday, December 13, 2019

Oregon measure Free Essays

Introduction In 1994, voters of Oregon passed Measure 11,which forced long compulsory prison terms for 16 designated violent and sex-related offenses, prohibited â€Å"earned time,†1 and provided for mandatory waiver of youthful offenders to adult court. This measure stood in sharp contrast to sentencing practices at that time, overlaying the state’s existing sentencing guidelines system for selected offenses, increasing the length of prison terms imposed, and reducing judicial discretion at the sentencing phase. The main challenge facing everyone is ‘Should Measure11 be repealed’. We will write a custom essay sample on Oregon measure or any similar topic only for you Order Now    Yes  Claims For Removal Of Measure 11 According to studies undertaken, if measure 11 were repealed, Oregon would save over $612 million in the next 10 years. The savings on new prison construction alone would be $153.6 million dollars between 2000 and 2010. For some crimes that are money worth spending, but for stealing two tires, or stealing a petty amount, and bus pass or fighting, that is wasting our tax dollars that should be going to schools/education, instead of prisons. Mandatory minimum sentencing means one has to serve every hour of every day of ones sentence no matter what. No good time, no early release, no boot camp. As high as 67% people, under Measure 11 ‘Are First Time Offenders’ and 35% are under 21 years of age. Instead of warehousing people and spending money on more prisons, we should be investing in prevention programs, and look for a substitute to sentencing plans that have been proven to be far more successful with far less cost. In the present form, Measure 11 sentences surpass any lesser existing guideline sentences for 21 violent and sex offenses —the original 16, plus 5 more added later.   Sentences range from 70 months for second-degree assault, kidnapping, robbery, and certain sex offenses, to 300 months for murder. Penalties may not be reduced because of the offender ’s prior record —regardless of whether an offender has a criminal record, or the length of such record, minimum sentences are the same for all offenders. Thus, some penalties are actually higher under sentencing guidelines in instances where an offender has an extensive criminal record. In general, however, Measure 11 penalties are longer than those imposed under sentencing guidelines. Juveniles aged 15 years or older are also subject to the measure.   Many people believe that the measure would negatively affect criminal justice system operations, and reduce system integrity. In terms of system operation, opponents expected the measure to lead to an increase in jury trials and prison populations, overburdening both the courts and the correctional system. At the same time, they expected an increase in jail sentences. People opposing this; feel that Measure 11 trials are an undesirable risk, because mandatory sentences eliminate any possibility of judicial caution in sentencing. Rep. Bowman believes that a judge should have some liberty, in setting the sentence for the person found guilty, after investigating all the facts in the case and the background of the defendant. Many of them think that juveniles deserve some consideration from the judge. Judges feel that Measure 11 is too harsh in some cases. Some Assault II and Robbery II charges are uncertain, and sex offenses are serious because of lifetime registry requirements, but judges have no choice but to impose the obligatory sentences. Judge Sullivan remarks opponents’ concerns about lengthy sentences for juveniles. There are very few services provided to those in the adult system. With no possibility of early release, juveniles have no incentives to re-establish themselves. Defense attorney Wehmeyer also mentions that prisoners cannot earn good time for earlier release and have no enthusiasm to behave. Jackson County officials are concerned that Measure 11 focuses on punishment instead of rehabilitation. Rep. Bowman believes that funds would be bettered spent on treatment and therapy than on mandatory prison terms. Rep. Bowman is concerned that Measure 11 discriminates against racial minorities and the poor, who cannot afford high-priced lawyers. She points to statistics that show that although African-Americans comprise only 2 percent of the state’s juvenile population, they are 16 percent of the juveniles serving time under Measure 11. Multnomah County’s Juvenile Crime Trends Report of March 1999 confirms that â€Å"despite being approximately 10% of the total youth population (10-17 yrs.). In Multnomah County, African-Americans are over-represented in the juvenile justice system at 21% to 23% of the offender population.† Opponents point out that juvenile crime had been decreasing both nationally and in Oregon before Measure 11 was implemented. They believe that the measure was harsh and inflexible, and that it discriminated against racial minorities and the poor. Counter Argument Proponents of the measure believed that these enhanced penalties would improve public safety by deterring future criminal behavior and increasing the length of time that felons who commit serious crimes spend in prison. District attorney Hehn believes that the certainty of mandatory prison terms is a â€Å"real deterrent† to criminal behavior by juveniles. She feels that juveniles did not take the previous juvenile justice system seriously. District attorney Heiser also feels that Measure 11 has been a restriction for younger teens and a reflection that the public was â€Å"fed up with coddling teenagers.† Measure 11 did have an impact on the crime rates in Oregon. Crime rates, particularly for violent crime, declined in Oregon after 1995. According to various surveys the findings are consistent with the possibility that Measure 11 may have been at least partly responsible for this decline, such   findings   do   not   provide clear evidence   of a causal link. An examination of other factors, different opinions, and further surveys, would need to be made before definite conclusions can be drawn. The only things unforeseen about Measure 11 are, that the drop in crime has been far greater than expected and the cost has been far less than predicted. As per studies, Oregon’s violent crime rate dropped 41 percent from 1995 to 2001 while the number of extra prison beds required by Measure 11 was less than half the original estimate. Conclusion Measure 11 has been in effect for only four years. It is difficult to determine its total, long-term effects on public safety and justice in Oregon. It remains a highly charged and emotional issue. The result of various studies indicate that passage of Measure 11 has altered sentencing and case processing practices for those charged with serious person offenses in the state of Oregon. While some of these were planned system changes, others were unplanned and are not fully understood. The measure can be considered a success in that it has accomplished its intended goal of increasing the length of prison sentences for offenders convicted of Measure11- eligible offenses. However, since passage of the measure, fewer offenders have been sentenced for the Measure 11 offenses, and a greater proportion have been sentenced for Measure11-alternate offenses. Analyses suggest that this move resulted from the use of prosecutorial caution and the reduction of cases which, though technically Measure11-eligible, were not deemed appropriate for the associated mandatory minimum penalty. Although the selective use of Measure 11, along with Oregon ’s prison construction program and reduced crime rates, has enabled the state to avoid the negative consequences of prison overcrowding, the process by which cases are being chosen for either full or partial prosecution is unclear. Prosecutors who were interviewed were confident in their ability to apply the measure properly; however, it is not clear what criteria were used in making their decisions, or whether these criteria were constantly and equitably  applied. Further research should address how discretion is exercised and charging decisions made under Measure 11. Oregon ’s Measure 11 introduced bold changes into the sentencing structure of the state. Surveys addressed the execution and impact of the measure on prosecution, sentencing, and convictions, both statewide and in three other counties also. As with many policy changes, some of the observed consequences were expected, others were not. Further research and experience with the measure will provide more definitive answers to the questions raised. There are many things said about Measure 11.   This measure has its share of pros and cons.   Whatever be it, offenders above 15 should be given a fair chance for rehabilitation, proper education and good facilities. The offenders should have separate premises and not be clubbed with the adult offenders.   The introduction of the Measure 11 is mainly to reduce the rate of crime in teenagers, and it should focus on that aspect only. Hence it is very necessary that Measure 11 should live up to its standards and abide by the rules and regulations of the law. Works Cited   Ã¢â‚¬Å"Oregon Mandatory Min Sentencing Law Measure 11† Oregon Department of Corrections Statistics, 6 December 2006. ;;. Bob, Dee Dee Kouns, Crime Victims United, 6 December 2006 ;;. League of Women Voters of Oregon Education Fund, 6 December 2006, How to cite Oregon measure, Essay examples

Thursday, December 5, 2019

Business Statistics Learning Contemporary Decision Making System

Question: Discuss about the Business Statistics Learning for Contemporary Decision Making. Answer: Introduction: Statistics is defined as a branch of science dealing with data collection, data analysis, data tabulation, and data presentation. The two major types of statistics are the descriptive and inferential statistics (Berenson et al., 2012). Descriptive statistics is concerned with measures of central tendency whereas inferential statistics encompasses on estimation and hypothesis testing. This assignment summarizes topics on data types and their scale of measurement with relevance to the essay. We analyse the use of descriptive or inferential statistics in to present a situation. Further we investigate the use of probability in presenting a practical world problem. The essay selected for the present assignment is Building Approvals: Sydney (NSW) housing activity still smoking in January. In the assignment we study the building approvals in states. The frequency of approvals of dwelling in the private sector from 2009 to 2017 has been studied. Both multi-unit and single unit housings approved have been studied. We further study the frequency of residential buildings approved in different states of Australia with emphasis on NSW, Vic, QLD, WA, SA and ROA. Moreover, the number of buildings approved in the non-residential sector is also studied. The source of the present data is the building approval committee of different states. Quantitative data is used for the study. Data is measured in interval scale. The data in the essay is presented in various forms. To evaluate the total approvals in residential sector ratio scale is used (Keller, 2015). With the use of ratio scale comparison of total approvals in 2015 to 2017 is done. To compare the approvals in states percentage scale has been used. Three graphs are presented in the essay. All the three graphs are time series line graphs. Different time lines have been used in the graphs. The time scale is on x-axis. The frequency scale is in y-axis. Measures of location are used in statistics to find the central tendency of the data. The three measures of central location are mean, median and mode (Gorini, 2012). Mean is given as the ratio of the sum of the values in a sample to the size of the sample. Median can be defined as the mid-point of the ordered data sample (Brase, 2015). Mode is the most frequently occurring data in the sample. In the present essay Central location has not been used to study the building approval rate. The distribution of the data in a sample if used measures variation in a sample. Range and quartiles are used to measure variations in a sample (Newbol, 2013). Range is the difference between the maximum value and minimum value in the sample. In an ordered data set quartile divides the data set into four equal halves. In the present essay on approvals of buildings measures of variation is not used. Descriptive statistics is used in the essay to summarise the data. Descriptive statistics is the use of measure of central tendency and variability to study a variable (Black, 2013) . Different measures of central tendency are mean, median and mode. The central tendency measures the central location of a dataset. However in the essay central tendency is not used. The sum of the total number of approvals in 2015 and 2016 is used for evaluation with the expected approvals in 2017. In statistics data is collected, evaluated and analysed and then presented in a form by which the common person can understand. Statistics is used to analyse situations in every sphere of life weather, disease, business, politics, quality testing etc. In a business environment statistics can be used to analyse data and make decisions based on the analysis. In the present essay longitudinal building data has been collected. The data of the buildings is presented in both numerical as well as graphical from. The numerical longitudinal data has been grouped into three heads residential and non-residential buildings and buildings in a state. The residential data is further divided into houses and multi-unit houses. Building approvals is studied with the help of frequency and ratio analysis. The building approvals for each state are used to compare the growth (percentage) in the states. In the non-residential sector the building approved in different sectors for non-residential use is compared. The numerical data has also been presented in graphical from. The numbers used to compare the data can be beneficial for key policy makers. The analysis of the numbers shows the trend in growth (or decline) in the building industry. The study of the numbers can be used by policy makers to make decisions. The present data can be used to understand the differences in supply and demand of buildings. Thus governments can make provisions for filling the gap. References Berenson, M., Levine, D., Szabat, K., O'Brien, M., Jayne, N., Watson, J. (2012). Basic business statistics: : Concepts And Applications (3rd ed.). Pearson Higher Education. Black, K. (2013). Business Statistics: For Contemporary Decision Making (8th edn). Wiley Global Education 2013 Brase, C. H. (2015). Understanding basic statistics. Cengage Learning. Gorini, C. A. (2012). Master Math. Boston: Cengage Learning. Keller, G. (2015). Statistics For Management And Economics (10th edn). Cengage Learning Newbol, P. C. (2013). Statistics for business and economics. Boston: Pearson.

Sunday, November 24, 2019

Catatonic Depression

Catatonic Depression Introduction Major depressive disorder is a mental ailment in which the victim exhibits an extreme mood, low self regard as well as loss of concern in activities that are usually considered to be pleasurable. Catatonic (depression) is a major type of depression that is exemplified by relentless motor function disturbances. It is nonetheless not viewed as a disconnect disorder but usually linked with other psychiatric conditions, such as, drug abuse.Advertising We will write a custom research paper sample on Catatonic Depression specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More It is caused by cognitions and environmental factors. The major cause of catatonic depression is negativity of a person or in the way he or she perceives different aspects of life. It is a disposition disorder and has an effect on an individual’s life, for example, the person’s health. It may even lead to suicide. This paper examines the causes, symptoms, preventio n, treatment and various arguments in relation to Catatonic depression. Literature Review Dhossche (2006) asserts that catatonic syndrome is characterized by coexistence of psychiatric symptoms and motor symptoms. There is an association of catatonia with depression, alcoholism, syphilis and epilepsy. Catatonic signs can appear in a variety of disorders and it is not therefore purely a psychiatric condition associated with schizophrenia as it was earlier believed. The identification of major depressive ailment is dependent on the self-reported occurrences from the patient himself/herself, demeanors accounted by acquaintances or family members, and a mental status test. Nevertheless, there is no (laboratory) examination for the disorder (major depression). Therapeutic practitioners in general call for examinations for (physical) conditions that may result in similar indications so as to establish the outcomes and degree of the major depression. According to Gelder, Mayou and Geddes ( 2005), a depressive ailment may result in dawdling recovery of the sick individual and may impinge on or deteriorate the victim’s physical health if it is not noticed at some point in the early phases. Beck and Alford (2009) asserts that in the class of disposition disorders, catatonic indicators are normally linked to bipolar I ailment which is a disposition disorder concerning depressive and mania phases. Signs and symptoms of catatonic exhilaration, for instance, unsystematic movement not linked to the surroundings or replication of phrases, words, and movements may take place for the period of manic stage. The authentic catatonic indicators are unfeasible to make a distinction from those witnessed in catatonic (schizophrenia). The catatonic symptoms may also appear in combination with other mood disorders, including bipolar II disorder, mixed disorders and major depressive disorders.Advertising Looking for research paper on psychology? Let's see if we can help you ! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Causes of Catatonic depression Catatonic depression is mainly caused by problems in production of neurotransmitters within the brain. These are substances that carry out impulses beside a nerve (from one nerve unit to the other). Serotonins (as well as norepinephrine) are believed to be the most essential neuro-transmitters that are linked to depression. Other causes include psycho-social, genetic among other factors. Psychological causes This involves different aspects of personality, where there is negativity in ones way of life, there is a tendency to develop depression since ones emotions are affected in a negative way. This is caused by the inability of an individual to cope with situations and low self esteem. A person may develop depression due to ealy relationships with the parents or caretakers for example during infant stage for example loss of a parent or mistreatment and rejection of the child. Social causes Social factors like poverty can cause mental disorders one of them being depression. Child abuse which may be physical, emotional or sexual can cause depression later in life as the child live to remember the ordeal many years after its occurrence. This is built on the argument that it is during the childhood days that a person’s develops and learns how to be a social being. Any ill-treatment may disfigure a child’s character development and afterward lead to depression and other intellectual and expressive disorders. Some kinds of long-term drug use or over-use of drugs and alcohol can also cause depression or worsen depressive conditions. Evolutionary causes Major depression is associated with causing an increased individual reproductive fitness. Depression may be hereditary where the depression disorders may be passed genetically. This is linked to some species and the manner in which they adapt to various stimuli especially those who perceive things in a negative m anner. Signs of Catatonic dejection The most discrete indications are; motor immobility, intense negativism and denial to speak, replication of other individuals terms and deeds as well as eccentric movements. Mainly, people with catatonic depression remain motionless and may remain in a position in which they have been placed for a long time, unnecessary activity that is performed without a specific reason, feelings of worthlessness, unnecessary guilt and regret, helplessness, hopelessness, self-hatred, poor concentration and memory, withdrawal from social situations and activities, reduced sexual desires, and thoughts of suicide. Catatonic depression patients may be stigmatized (American Psychiatric Association, 2000)Advertising We will write a custom research paper sample on Catatonic Depression specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Prevention of Catatonic depression Although there is no one major preventive measure for depressive diso rders, the recommended way to prevent Catatonic depression is through Becks cognitive-behavioral therapy. The therapy works by breaking a persons negative perceptions about him or herself, the world, and their general view of different aspects of life. Catatonic (depression) Treatment Preliminary treatment is intended at mitigating the victim from the catatonic situation. The commonly used form of treatment is the use of antidepressants medication. Electroconvulsive remedy is also an effectual treatment for catatonia and its associated causes, for instance, depression. It has a more rapidly effect than anti-depressant (therapy) and hence it is suggested for urgent situations for example where one is refusing to take meals. Care should be taken in the provision of the medication since wrong use can worsen the situation. When first line treatment fails, other means are used, for example amantadine which may lead to tolerance when its use is prolonged hence causing psychosis. Memantine is another alternative and is ideal for persons who can not put up with amantadine for the reason that it has decreased frequencies of psychosis. Hospitalization is necessary for people who posses signs of being violent and the ability to harm themselves or others. Counseling is also essential to the patients as it helps them change their negative attitude towards life and value themselves. It helps the patients to raise their self- esteem and learn to live positively hence avoiding stress. Psychotherapy is very useful especially to older people and should be offered in conjunction with medication since it minimizes the chances of the disorder becoming recurrent. Physical exercise is also crucial in clearing moderate depressive disorders since it keeps the mind occupied and the body fit (Martin, Volkar and Lewis, 2007) It is believed that depressed individuals usually have shorter life expectancies than those without depression. This is because of greater vulnerability to medical i llnesses that lead to deterioration a person’s of health and also cases of suicide. Deficiency in societal support, for example, from the close family members may result in stress and strain, which is the commonly reported reason for depression. There are some speculations by the American Psychiatric Association(2000) that states that exposure to ultra-violet light reduces the chances of getting depressive disorders. 30 minutes of vigorous exercise three times a week also reduce the vulnerability of being a victim of depressive disorders.Advertising Looking for research paper on psychology? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The mainly employed treatments (for depression) are medication, psychiatric therapy, and electroconvulsive (therapy). Psychotherapy is the treatment moist suitable for people under the age of 18years while electroconvulsive therapy is only used where other treatments can not work because of one reason or another. Care and treatment of depression is mainly done outside the hospital unless for cases where the patients are violent and have signs of causing harm to themselves or to others. It is nevertheless hard to get excellent cure of depression in third world nations due to limited competent personnel as well as medication facilities. Conclusion Major depressive disorder is inclusive of various kinds of disorders each with its causes, symptoms, prevention and treatment. However most disorders share most of the symptoms and characteristics and it is therefore difficult to directly identify a disorder. It is advisable to take preventive measures to ensure that a person does not suffer from these disorders and if the disorder occurs the patient should seek medication early enough to avoid worse effects. Reference List American Psychiatric Association (2000). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. 4th edition, text revised. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association. Beck, T. A., Alford B.A. (2009). Depression: Causes and Treatment. 2nd ed. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press Dhossche, M.D. (2006). Catatonia in Autism Spectrum Disorders. San Diego: Academic Press Gelder, M.G., Mayou, R., Geddes, J. (2005). Psychiatry. 3rd ed. United Kingdom: Oxford University Press Martin, A., Volkar, A.F and Lewis, M. (2007). Lewiss child and adolescent psychiatry: a comprehensive textbook. 4th ed. New York: Williams Wilkins publishers.

Thursday, November 21, 2019

A critical analysis of the globalization strategy of a multinational Essay

A critical analysis of the globalization strategy of a multinational company (Coca-Cola) - Essay Example While conceding to the fact that internationalisation is a risky endeavour, international business theory has proposed a number of risk-minimising strategies and a set of recommendations for the constructive exploitation of globalisation for the purposes of profit maximisation. Needless to say, while some corporations have successfully implemented these recommendations and have substantially expanded their markets and financial returns as a result, others have not. This research looks at one of the corporations which has successfully reaped the rewards of globalisation: Coca-Cola. Drawing on international business theory, the study engages in a critical analysis of Coca-Cola's external and internal environments for the purposes of shedding light on its corporate strategy and the uncovering the determinants of its success. The analyses, which utilise Porter's Five Forces, SWOT and PEST, indicates that Coca Cola's success is a direct outcome of an internationalisation strategy which is deeply considerate of the particularities and peculiarities of the various national markets within which it operates. 1 Introduction Multinational corporations are popularly regarded as the primary beneficiaries of globalisation. In his defence and justification of this claim, Wartick and Wood (2006) highlight the immediate correlation between the removal of barriers to international trade and foreign direct investment and the growth and expansion of the global activities of multinational companies. While not disputing this claim, the fact is that multinational companies are not simply the primary beneficiaries of globalisation but the purveyors of globalisation. In other words, globalisation was spearheaded by globally-minded, expansionist corporations such as Coca-Cola. Indeed, as Wartick and Wood (2006) argue, corporations such as Coca-Cola, McDonald's, Phillip Morris, Nestle and several others globalised business through international expansion via mergers, acquisitions and franchises, prior to the inception of globalisation. The implication here is that Coca-Cola, among others played a seminal role in the glo balisation of the international economy and, indeed, designed and pursued global business strategies prior to the passage and subsequent enforcement of WTO rules. This perspective on the role of multinational companies in the globalisation process can be validated through a brief, albeit critical, review of the implications of multinationals. Understanding the role of multinationals in globalisation and the degree to which, if at all, globalisation impacted the strategies of MNC, is contingent upon knowing the meaning of MNC. Gershon (1997, p. 3) offers a very precise and concise definition of the concept, writing that a multinational corporation is "a nationally based company with overseas operations in two or more countries" (Gershon, 1997, p. 3). As may have been inferred from the introductory paragraph and as most are well aware of, multinational corporations are a significant part of the contemporary global economy and, without any doubt, its primary players. The power which multinationals command and the extent of their influence on the economy, whether at the national, regional or global level, is explicitly explained in Jacoby's (1984, p. 5) description of the multinational cor